All events

This project focuses on events in the public space of the city, under the open sky. After the suppression of the "Spring of Nations" in 1848 and until the adoption of the 1867 constitution, the only legal avenues for public expression were religious rituals and imperial celebrations. Going out into the streets to express one's opinion without it automatically being considered a rebellion was still a novelty.

Over time, the format of these events changed. Initially "viches" were common as gatherings of activists where each participant could be registered and controlled. Then political demonstrations and rallies gained popularity, where individuals could get lost in the crowd. ЗThe format of the meetings changed, but the term "viche" came to be used for both types of events: chamber and mass gatherings. This, in turn, meant that participation in politics could be anonymous, and participants could behave more radically and less law-abiding.

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The Emperor Is Coming 1880

These visits to Lviv by the Emperor were neither the first nor the last. But they were probably the warmest and most comfortable.
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The Emperor Is Coming 1855

The emperor's visit to Lviv on June 22-24 (on his way through Galicia to Bukovyna) was particularly military in nature.
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The Emperor Is Coming!

During his nearly 70-year reign (from 1848 to 1916), Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria visited Lviv five times, and each of these visits was different from the last.
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The Emperor Is Coming 1903

The emperor's stay in Lviv was short - only 4 hours. The emperor was checking on military maneuvers in the Komarno area, and came to Lviv rather for a short visit.
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Religious rituals in the public space of Lviv

The Roman Catholic Poles and the Greek Catholic Ukrainians were the main actors in purposeful political representation with the use of religious instruments in Lviv. For them, this presence in the city was part of the struggle for Lviv as a center of their "national revival."
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Funerals as national manifestations

Funerals with the participation of a large number of people took place in Lviv even at the time of strict centralization after the suppression of the Spring of Nations in 1848. These were opportunities to hold legal demonstrations at a time when all mass events, except imperial and religious ones, were prohibited.
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Space marking

Mass politics influenced not only using the city’s space but also building it. Lviv was considered the capital of a crown land and, in addition, the capital of two national projects, so it should have appropriate buildings and monuments, while streets should have the correct names.
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