All events

This project focuses on events in the public space of the city, under the open sky. After the suppression of the "Spring of Nations" in 1848 and until the adoption of the 1867 constitution, the only legal avenues for public expression were religious rituals and imperial celebrations. Going out into the streets to express one's opinion without it automatically being considered a rebellion was still a novelty.

Over time, the format of these events changed. Initially "viches" were common as gatherings of activists where each participant could be registered and controlled. Then political demonstrations and rallies gained popularity, where individuals could get lost in the crowd. ЗThe format of the meetings changed, but the term "viche" came to be used for both types of events: chamber and mass gatherings. This, in turn, meant that participation in politics could be anonymous, and participants could behave more radically and less law-abiding.

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Funeral of Ivan Franko (1916)

Franko's funeral became one of the most massive Ukrainian events in Lviv before 1918 demonstrating Ukrainians as a society with ambitions to fight for the city and in the city.
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Honouring the emperor without the emperor

The symbolic role of Franz Joseph in the system of ideas about imperial power is described in the text about the emperor's visit to Lviv. However, the figure of the emperor was informationally present in the city even in his physical absence. It was quite evident, in particular, during various celebrations, jubilees or anniversaries.
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Imperial propaganda and national contradictions (1916)

In 1915-1916, Poles and Ukrainians increasingly emphasized their future statehood. Vienna tried to limit national activity as much as possible in conditions where the monarchy depended on the favor of "its people". And at the same time the imperial center promoted its own ideological agenda, reserving for itself the role of the main arbiter.
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Mass events during the Russian occupation of Lviv (1914-1915)

After repressions by the occupation authorities, the only legal way of manifestation in Lviv were Roman Catholic religious celebrations. This allowed the Poles to emphasize their identity through their denomination and, in addition, events were also celebrated according to the Gregorian calendar, while the Russians had made the Julian calendar official.
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October 1918 in Lviv

In October 1918, in the context of the struggle for the formation of national states, Lviv became the subject of disputes between the Ukrainians and Poles.
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Political manifestations after the liberation of Lviv (1915)

After June 9, 1915, there was an attempt to restore the usual pre-war practices at the backgroud of epidemics, shortages and the proximity of the front line. Ukrainians and Jews preferred not to participate in demonstrations, but for Poles the religious and imperial holidays remained the "platforms" for self-representation, and the traditions of "tours" were revived.
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Return of distinguished citizens (1917)

Along with the usual holidays for Lviv, in 1917 the most notable mass events were the return of famous persons who were taken out of the city as prisoners by the retreating Russian army in 1915.
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