City in the Great War

The Great War intensified political processes that seemed to have died down due to the limitations imposed by military administrations. Local politicians, however, continued to look for ways to express themselves in the urban space; some rituals had to be abandoned, indeed, but new ones appeared instead.

The war accelerated and crystallized all political processes, events began to develop very rapidly, the rhetoric of politicians became more inclined toward militarism and "true satisfaction" of national demands.

Due to this crystallization, it is possible to see what Polish and Ukrainian national movements achieved in the public sphere during the times of Galicia’s autonomy within the Austro-Hungarian empire. We can also see what these processes were leading to, ending in a bloody clash in November 1918.

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Mass events during the Russian occupation of Lviv (1914-1915)

After repressions by the occupation authorities, the only legal way of manifestation in Lviv were Roman Catholic religious celebrations. This allowed the Poles to emphasize their identity through their denomination and, in addition, events were also celebrated according to the Gregorian calendar, while the Russians had made the Julian calendar official.
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Political manifestations after the liberation of Lviv (1915)

After June 9, 1915, there was an attempt to restore the usual pre-war practices at the backgroud of epidemics, shortages and the proximity of the front line. Ukrainians and Jews preferred not to participate in demonstrations, but for Poles the religious and imperial holidays remained the "platforms" for self-representation, and the traditions of "tours" were revived.
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Imperial propaganda and national contradictions (1916)

In 1915-1916, Poles and Ukrainians increasingly emphasized their future statehood. Vienna tried to limit national activity as much as possible in conditions where the monarchy depended on the favor of "its people". And at the same time the imperial center promoted its own ideological agenda, reserving for itself the role of the main arbiter.
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Funeral of Ivan Franko (1916)

Franko's funeral became one of the most massive Ukrainian events in Lviv before 1918 demonstrating Ukrainians as a society with ambitions to fight for the city and in the city.
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Return of distinguished citizens (1917)

Along with the usual holidays for Lviv, in 1917 the most notable mass events were the return of famous persons who were taken out of the city as prisoners by the retreating Russian army in 1915.
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